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Fermentation

Sugar, yeast and yeast nutrient additions

Sulfite

SO2 additions to control spoilage

Acid Adjustments

Additions to increase or decrease total acidity

Fining and Oaking

Additions for greater clarification and character

Blending and Bottling

Modeling blends and approximating bottles required

Formulas
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Formulas
At iWinemaker, we continually strive for accuracy and completeness. Please contact us if you have any comments or suggestions regarding the formulas below.

Conversions
1 liter = 0.26 gallons, 1 gallon = 3.79 liters
1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds, 1 pound = 0.45 kilograms
1 gram = 0.0353 ounces 1 ounce = 28.35 grams
1 milliliter = 0.2 teaspoons, 1 teaspoon = 4.93 milliliters
1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds = 1 pound = 0.45 kilograms

Fermentation
1 degree BRIX = 0.59% alcohol by volume
Quantity of sugar to increase one liter of juice by 1% alcohol by volume = 19 grams
1 kilogram of sugar = 1.2 liters of sugar
Quantity of sugar to increase one gallon of juice by 1% alcohol by volume = 2.4 ounces
1 pound of sugar = 2.3 cups of sugar

Quantity of yeast to be added to one liter of juice = 0.3 grams
Quantity of yeast to be added to one gallon of juice = 0.04 ounces

Quantity of Diammonium Phosphate to be added to one liter of juice = 1.1 grams
1 gram of Diammonium Phosphate = 1 milliliter of Diammonium Phosphate
Quantity of Diammonium Phosphate to be added to one gallon of juice = 0.2
1 ounce of Diammonium Phosphate = 5.75 teaspoons of Diammonium Phosphate

Quantity of yeast hulls to be added to one liter of juice = 0.7 grams
1 gram of yeast hulls = 2.2 milliliters of yeast hulls
Quantity of yeast hulls to be added to one gallon of juice = 0.1 ounces
1 ounce of yeast hulls = 12.9 teaspoons of yeast hulls

Sulfite
Quantity of
potassium metabisulfite to be added to one liter of wine, juice of must to increase the amount of free sulfites by 10 parts per million = 0.017 grams
1 gram of
potassium metabisulfite = 0.7 milliliters of potassium metabisulfite
Quantity of potassium metabisulfite to be added to one gallon of wine, juice of must to increase the amount of free sulfites by 10 parts per million = 0.002 ounces
1 ounce of potassium metabisulfite = 5 teaspoons of potassium metabisulfite

Acid Adjustments
Quantity of tartaric acid to be added to one liter of wine to increase the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is 0.96 grams
1 gram of tartaric acid = 1 milliliter
Quantity of tartaric acid to be added to one gallon of wine to increase the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is 0.13 ounces
1 ounce of tartaric acid = 5.75 teaspoons

Quantity of malic acid to be added to one liter of wine to increase the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is 0.94 grams
1 gram of malic acid = 1.1 milliliter
Quantity of malic acid to be added to one gallon of wine to increase the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is .013 ounces
1 ounce of malic acid = 6.33 teaspoons

Quantity of citric acid to be added to one liter of wine to increase the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is 0.91 grams
1 gram of citric acid = 1 milliliter
Quantity of citric acid to be added to one gallon of wine to increase the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is 0.12 ounces
1 ounce of citric acid = 5.78 teaspoons

Quantity of acid blend to be added to one liter of wine to increase the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is 0.94 grams
1 gram of acid blend = 1.1 milliliter
Quantity of acid blend to be added to one gallon of wine to increase the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is 0.13 ounces
1 ounce of acid blend = 6.33 teaspoons

Quantity of calcium carbonate to be added to one liter of wine to decrease the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is 0.91 grams
1 gram of
calcium carbonate = 1.9 milliliters
Quantity of
calcium carbonate to be added to one gallon of wine to decrease the amount of titratable acid by 1/10th of one percent is 0.12 ounces
1 ounce of
calcium carbonate = 10.9 teaspoons

Fining and Oaking
Quantity of Bentonite to be added to one liter of wine is 0.4 grams
1 gram of Bentonite = 1.45 milliliters
Quantity of Bentonite to be added to one gallon of wine 0.05 ounces
1 ounce of Bentonite = 8.25 teaspoons

Quantity of gelatin to be added to one liter of wine is 0.26 grams
1 gram of gelatin = 1.54 milliliters
Quantity of gelatin to be added to one gallon of wine 0.05 ounces
1 ounce of Bentonite = 8.75 teaspoons

Quantity of egg whites to be added to one liter of wine is 0.33 milliliters
Quantity of egg whites to be added to one gallon of wine 0.25 ounces
The white of 1 egg is to be added for every 76 liters or 20 gallons of wine

Quantity of oak chips to be added to one liter of wine is 6.5 grams
1 gram of oak chips = 3 milliliters
Quantity of oak chips to be added to one gallon of wine 0.88 ounces
1 ounce of oak chips =  .25 cups

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